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  • Liquefaction of Bulk Cargo Explained The Shipyard

    May 07, 2020· Bulk carriers make up around 21 percent of today’s merchant ships. They are special ships used to transport solid bulk cargo, defined by the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes (IMSBC) Code as “any cargo, other than liquid or gas, consisting of a combination of particles, granules or any larger pieces of material generally uniform in composition, which is loaded directly into the

  • Bulk cargo liquefaction guidance DNV

    Many common bulk cargoes, such as iron ore fines, nickel ore and various mineral concentrates, are examples of materials that may liquefy. If liquefaction occurs on board a vessel, the stability will be reduced due to the free surface effect and cargo shift, possibly resulting in capsizing of the vessel.

  • MARITIME BULK CARGO LIQUEFACTION ICS Class

    BULK CARGO LIQUEFACTION SAFER, SMARTER, GREENER. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Liquefaction is a phenomenon in which a soil-like material is abruptly transformed from a solid dry state to an almost fluid state. Many common bulk cargoes, such as iron ore fines, nickel ore and various

  • MARITIME BULK CARGO LIQUEFACTION

    In the last ten years, cargo liquefaction has caused the loss of more than 100 seafarers lives and twelve bulk carrier vessels, and remains the most important safety issue for bulk carriers. Awareness of which conditions may cause cargo liquefaction is essential for the safe operation of bulk carriers, which is why

  • CARGO LIQUEFACTION AND DANGERS TO SHIPS

    is a serious problem for solid bulk cargo carriers. Liquefaction problems cause loss of lives, total loss of ships and a high cost of insurance. M/V Mega Tars, M/V Sea Prospect, M/V Jian Fu Star, M/V Nasco Diamond,M/V Hong Wei and lastly M/V Vinalines Queen

  • Precautions against bulk cargo which may liquefy

    Cargo liquefaction cases resulting in total loss The recent tragic loss of the 2005-built Vietnamese bulk carrier and 22 of its crewship, which was reportedly carrying a cargo of nickel ore from Morowali, Indonesia to China, sank on 25 December 2010 underlines the urgent need for greater enforcement of regulations and testing of cargoes that

  • Liquefaction and lost bulk carriers: Is a design change

    Nov 13, 2018· Liquefaction potential depends not just on how much moisture is in a bulk cargo, but also on other characteristics, such as particle size distribution, the ratio of the volume of solid particles to water, and the relative density of the cargo, as well as the method of loading and the motions of the ship during the voyage.

  • MARITIME BULK CARGO LIQUEFACTION ICS Class

    BULK CARGO LIQUEFACTION SAFER, SMARTER, GREENER. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Liquefaction is a phenomenon in which a soil-like material is abruptly transformed from a solid dry state to an almost fluid state. Many common bulk cargoes, such as iron ore fines, nickel ore and various

  • Understanding and Managing the Liquefaction of Bulk Ores

    Liquefaction of cargo can affect many types of material being transported in bulk. Iron ore, nickel ore, coal slurry, sand slurry, and other wet minerals or fines are all susceptible. Liquefaction is a particularly dangerous issue as it turns what appears to be an apparently safe cargo into something that can have a significantly detrimental

  • Liquefaction Incidents of Mineral Cargoes on Board Bulk

    Liquefaction is a frequently occurring problem taking place when transporting wet granular solid bulk cargoes on board bulk carriers. Liquefaction of a solid bulk cargo can occur when excessive dynamic loading, induced by rough seas and vessel vibrations, is transmitted to the cargo. From 1988 to 2015, there have been 24 suspected liquefaction incidents reported, which resulted in 164

  • Precautions against bulk cargo which may liquefy

    Cargo liquefaction cases resulting in total loss The recent tragic loss of the 2005-built Vietnamese bulk carrier and 22 of its crewship, which was reportedly carrying a cargo of nickel ore from Morowali, Indonesia to China, sank on 25 December 2010 underlines the urgent need for greater enforcement of regulations and testing of cargoes that

  • Death by Bulk Cargo Liquefaction: don’t become a statistic

    May 01, 2019· Cargo Liquefaction, occasioning the rapid capsize and sinking of nine ships, is shown to be the deadliest root cause resulting in 101 seafarer deaths (54%) out of a total of 188 deaths from all causes. It is a certainty that this number would be much higher if the cargo liquefaction losses of smaller bulk carriers had been included.

  • Cargo Liquefying Whilst at Sea IMSBC Code Guideline

    Ship operators and master’s should not automatically assume there is no risk of liquefaction simply because a cargo does not appear in the IMSBC Code as a ‘Group A’ cargo. Any bulk cargo containing the correct proportion of fine particles and sufficient moisture may liquefy.

  • Liquefaction and lost bulk carriers: Is a design change

    Nov 13, 2018· The known or suspected cause of these tragic losses was cargo liquefaction. In all but one case, the lost ship was carrying one of three cargoes: iron ore fines; nickel ore, or bauxite. (Hui Long was carrying a cargo of fluorspar mineral.) Although all are classified as solid bulk cargoes granular materials loaded directly into a ship’s

  • Numerical investigation of solid bulk cargo liquefaction

    Jul 01, 2018· Discrete Element Method is used to describe the cargo shift of bulk cargo. • The DEM liquefaction model was developed first to investigate the cargo liquefaction. • Numerical validation is conducted to validate the liquefaction model. • Parametric investigation is undertaken to identify the key parameters that trigger cargo liquefaction.

  • Global consortium investigates problem of solid bulk cargo

    Mar 09, 2021· A global consortium of cross industry partners has been convened to address the problem of solid bulk cargo liquefaction in ships, reports marine consultancy Solis, which is one of the partners in the consortium. It was noted that this had been responsible for the loss of more than 100 seafarers’ lives and nine bulk carriers...

  • The Stellar Daisy Loss: Understanding Cargo Liquefaction

    It is extremely sad to see the loss of bulk carriers, particularly Very Large Ore Carriers (or VLOCs) making headlines in this day and age.While the cause of the disappearance of the Stellar Daisy is still a speculation, the evidence of an oil slick suggest the vessel has sunk.. Stellar Daisy may have been a 24 year old bulker (built 1993, source: VesselsValue); but surely under a strict

  • Cargo liquefaction GARD

    Cargo liquefaction. The most widely-known cargoes of this type are mineral concentrates, although many other cargoes can also liquefy, such as fluorspar, certain grades of coal, pyrites, millscale, sinter/pellet feed, etc. Of particular concern is the large number of cargoes of nickel ore loaded in Indonesia and the Philippines in respect of

  • STANDARD CARGO

    In 2010, the majority of bulk carrier deaths were attributed to cargo liquefaction. This Standard Cargo has an emphasis on iron ore fines from India and nickel ore from Indonesia and the Philippines, but the advice in it is also applicable to other cargos susceptible to liquefaction. The issue of liquefaction affects bulk carriers of all sizes

  • Mitigating the Risks of Bulk Cargo Liquefaction, Steel

    Oct 01, 2020· With the export of nickel and other ores, the risks and dangers of cargo liquefaction cannot be over stressed. It is a hazard that is familiar to Captain Paul Walton who witnessed first-hand the risk to lives during his seafaring career back in the mid-90s.

  • Liquefaction Nautical Institute

    Liquefaction. The issue of liquefaction affects bulk carriers of all sizes, but liquefaction can affect all ships carrying bulk ores including dry general cargo ships that load parcels of bulk cargo. Cargo liquefaction has been of concern to seafarers for over a century. Solid bulk cargoes such as iron ore fines or nickel ore normally contain a

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